Element flux to the environment of the passively degassing crater lake-hosting Kawah Ijen volcano, Indonesia, and implications for estimates of the global volcanic flux

Publication Date : 2015-12-17
Author : van Hinsberg, V.Vigouroux, N.Palmer, S.Berlo, K.Mauri, G.Williams-Jones, A.Fischer, T.
Countries : Indonesia
Disaster Management Theme :
Disaster Type : Volcano
Document Type : Research Paper
Languange : en
Link :

Abstact :

Volcanoes play an important role in the global cycling of elements by providing a pathway from the deep Earth to its surface. Here, we have constrained the flux to the environment for most elements of the periodic table for the passively degassing, crater lake-hosting Kawah Ijen volcano in the Indonesian arc. Our results indicate that emissions of Kawah Ijen are dominated by acid water outflow, especially for the ligands (Cl, F, Br), with active fumaroles contributing significant (semi)metals (e.g. Se, As, Sb, Hg), as well as C and S. The compositional signature of emissions from Kawah Ijen is similar to that of major volcanic emitters such as Etna, but element fluxes are smaller. This result provides the prerequisite foundation for extrapolating a small set of measured volcanic gas emissions to a global volcanic flux estimate. However, the aqueous flux (i.e. seepage of volcanic hydrothermal fluids and volcano-influenced groundwater) is at least as important in terms of element release, and the consideration of the gaseous flux alone thus represents a significant underestimate of the impact of volcanoes on their environment and the contribution of volcanic hydrothermal systems to global element cycling.