Disaster Education and School Safety Governance after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Indonesia: From National Policy to Local Implementation

Publication Date : 2017-11-28
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Countries : Indonesia
Disaster Management Theme :
Disaster Type :
Document Type : Research Paper
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The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami incentivized policy change in Indonesian disaster risk reduction, including disaster education and school safety governance. However, much research focuses on the results of pilot projects and rarely addresses policy change comprehensively from national to local levels, and across sectors. As such, little progress has been made in designing policy that ensures all-schools implementation. This chapter aims to review the progress of disaster education and school safety governance from the national and local levels. We focus on the elementary school level due to its importance in educating a new generation that may not have experienced disasters. Since disaster education and school safety is not an exclusive domain of disaster management policy, the state of policy convergence and coherence is assessed using discourse network analysis and content analysis. At the local policy level, the chapter describes a case from Banda Aceh city. It shows that although the city received various programs, implementation of disaster education and school safety is not attainable for all elementary schools, particularly due to the absence of city-wide policy. Accordingly, this chapter identifies the necessary policy instrument to ensure city-wide implementation of disaster education and school safety. The findings show that the best solution is to have a ministerial-level regulation in the education sector, combined with a local regulation (Perda) or mayor/regent regulation, which can ensure the use of a public budget. Availability of a policy directives or action plans at school level could be useful in obtaining the money and technical capacity needed for all-schools implementation. This in turn, will ensure coherence and connectivity between various policies from local government, disaster management and education to close the gap between national policy and local implementation of disaster education and school safety governance in Indonesia.