Indonesia, Update on Mt. Sinabung Volcanic Eruption

16:30 Oct 17 2017 Karo, North Sumatera

Indonesia, Update on Mt. Sinabung Volcanic Eruption Indonesia, Update on Mt. Sinabung Volcanic Eruption Indonesia, Update on Mt. Sinabung Volcanic Eruption Indonesia, Update on Mt. Sinabung Volcanic Eruption Indonesia, Update on Mt. Sinabung Volcanic Eruption
= Update 6 April 2018

Mount Sinabung in Karo regency of North Sumatra province erupted again on Friday (6/4/2018) at 16.07 Wib. Eruption throws volcanic ash and pyroclastic material with strong pressure dark gray to as high as 5,000 meters. The eruption was also accompanied by a heat cloud as far as 3,500 meters to the Southeast- East and South-Southeast.

There were no casualties from the eruption because in the danger zone area is already empty of community activities. People in the red zone have been displaced for a long time and some have been relocated.

Status of Mount Sinabung remains Caution (level IV). PVMBG raises VONA to red. Volcanic activity remains high and there is the potential for subsequent eruptions.

The eruption and the hot clouds that descend the slopes of Sinabung Mountain seemed to be a confirmation of the Sinabung mystery. The mystery that until now never revealed about when Sinabung will stop erupting.

Currently some relocation sites have been built at the foot of Sinabung. As of March 2018, there are 30 relocation sites. The process of building houses in the location is varied, some are completed, but some are still proceeding to the completion of development. For example in Nang Belawan 2, as many as 341 houses have stood dashing. While in Surbakti 2, as many as 227 units of houses are being built with the construction process reached 63% until March 2018.

The two locations of the expanse and the built house units are part of the post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction (RR) process of eruption or Sinabung eruption. BNPB in cooperation with BPBD North Sumatra Province, BPBD Karo District, the relevant Ministries / Institutions, and communities that carry out the construction of these houses.

Stages of Relocation

There are three stages of relocation for the post-disaster handling of this Sinabung eruption. The first phase, the fulfillment of relocation needs for 370 heads of families (KK) in Siosar coming from three villages namely Bekerah Village 112 KK, Sukameriah 128 KK, and Simacem 130 KK. In this location, besides the houses also built support facilities, public facilities, and social facilities for residents.

The second phase, the fulfillment of the need for independent relocation for 1,655 families and 181 families of additional data coming from four villages namely Gurukinayan Village 778 KK, Kutatonggal 108 KK, Berastepu 611 KK and Gamber 158 KK.

In this second phase, the community receives home funding and agricultural land support. The method used to build a house is an independent relocation spread over 22 stretches. Technically, the implementation of housing development is accompanied by Community-Based Settlement Rehabilitation and Reconstruction (Rekompak) from the Ministry of PUPR. As of March 2018, 1,170 houses were built and 485 other houses were still under construction.

The third stage is the construction of infrastructure of supporting facilities at the completed self relocation site in the second phase and the clearing of the 3rd phase relocation land in Siosar for approximately 1,098 families who are still in the process of establishing verification by name by address. The residents will be relocated from Sigarang-garang village, Sukanalu village, Mardinding village and Lau Kawar hamlet.

Challenges of Relocation

Mount Sinabung keeps the mystery, that is when this volcano will stop erupting. Scientifically, the phenomenon of the continuous eruption of Sinabung after a long period of sleep has something to do with a large sequence of earthquakes occurring in subduction zones around the island of Sumatra.
Researchers Matteo Lupi and Stephen Miller in his research in the Journal of Solid Earth concluded that the earthquakes that occurred in Sumatra, Aceh 2004, Nias 2005, and Mentawai 2010 have triggered another earthquake in Sumatra mainland. As a result stress (stress) that had been pressing and enclosing the magic kitchen Sinabung weakened. This weakening of the magma's kitchen enclosure causes the magma to migrate upward through the newly formed cracks until it finally erupts.

A mountain will stop erupting when magma pressure is no longer able to push the magma out to the surface of the earth. On Mount Sinabung, there is still this magma pressure, as evidenced by the presence of deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes around the mountain as well as eruptions that continue to occur.

This phenomenon explains why Mount Sinabung continues to erupt since 2010 and never stopped. This happens because Sinabung is looking for a new balance, so it is very difficult to predict when the eruption will end. In this year, on February 19, 2018, Sinabung's return erupts.

With Sinabung continuously erupting and unpredictable when it will end, disaster mitigation efforts, especially the RR process at this location experience its own challenges. Implementation of the RR is conducted simultaneously and during the emergency response period. The implication is that RR efforts should also pay attention to the activities undertaken during the emergency, namely the fulfillment of basic needs such as clean water and logistics for people who have to evacuate because they live in danger zone.

In addition, the damage and losses caused by the eruption Sinabung also continue to change. As a result the temporary calculation of damage and losses due to eruption of Mount Sinabung also changing. From September 2013 to May 2015 estimated damage and losses reached Rp1, 80 trillion. Consists of damage value of Rp 578.99 billion and loss value of Rp 1.23 trillion.

The biggest damage and losses occur in the productive economic sector which includes agriculture, plantation, animal husbandry, trade, tourism, fisheries, SME and industry amounting to more than Rp 1.14 trillion. Next damage and losses in the housing sector amounted to Rp 505.9 billion, infrastructure Rp 83.93 billion, social Rp 53.43 billion and cross-sector of Rp 18.26 billion.

Lessons from the RR Process
Responding to the mystery of Sinabung mentioned above, then there are some things that should be the attention of the government and people living around Sinabung Mountain. BPBD and related agencies to keep guard at the entrance to the red zone where no activity should be in accordance with the recommendations of PVMBG.

BNPB and BPBD in order to always be ready to cope if in case of displacement due to Sinabung eruption. BNPB and BPBD to continue to seek relocation and fulfillment of the needs of people who have to evacuate because they can not return to their homes. BPBD Karo District also to continue to socialize secondary threats from Mount Agung such as rain lava flood.

From the side of society, then there are some preparations that can be done. Among these are the preparation of disaster preparedness masks and bags that contain various needs and important documents that are easy to carry when Sinabung erupts at any time. In the rainy season, people who live and move near the river that heads in the mount Sinabung agat remain alert to the threat of lava flood.

Community knowledge about the dangers of volcano eruption also needs to be improved, including adaptation efforts that can be done. For example, the design of the house that adjusts the threat of ash rain, so it is not dangerous and easy to clean. Further provision and preparation of drinking water reserves if existing channels and supplies are disrupted by lava flood or impacted by eruption.

In terms of disaster management, the eruption of Sinabung that occurred after a long period of inactivity showed similar phenomena can also occur in other mountains in Indonesia which amounted to 127 pieces. Therefore, the government, society, and the business world should not be negligent and must always be ready to face the risk of this volcano disaster.

Especially for RR efforts, then what is done in Sinabung re-affirms that every disaster management effort is unique. This happens because each region has different local wisdom and different capacities, so special adjustments and approaches are adapted to the characteristics of the area.

In this case, each local government has its own authority and policy in determining the best model or approach in post-disaster handling. In addition, disaster management in the region is not only a matter of BPBD, but needs full support from other Regional Government Organizations (OPD). In the RR effort it is also necessary to coordinate and synergize the regional and central government as a whole, starting from the planning, budgeting, implementation and supervision.

If RR efforts are required to relocate, it is important to realize that this process is very complicated and often leads to conflict. Around the world, the process of relocating citizens is often problematic. This process does not simply resettle people in new places, but also needs to consider other factors.

Things to consider when doing the relocation process among them is the need for attention to citizens' access to their livelihood or livelihood. In Yogyakarta, residents relocated after the eruption of Merapi 2010 can still access their land for livestock and cultivation. In Sinabung, residents are given land lease assistance in order to keep production in new places. In addition, the preparation of infrastructure such as roads, electricity, and water as well as public and social facilities also need attention.

By preparing it all, hopefully the relocation process will run well. As in Hamparan Nang Belawan 2, poles for power lines have entered the location and waiting to be connected to new houses that have been established. It is expected that other facilities will soon follow, so the houses in the location are ready for habitation, not empty and shivering from the cold rain.

= Update on 25 Feb 2018 =
Mount Sinabung erupted again on 25 Feb 2018, 20:38 UCT +7. Volcanic material was released 3,800 meters above sea level. BNPB mobilized additional relief items to Karo Regency on 26 February 2018.

= Update on 19 February 2018 =
1) PVMBG reported eruption of Mount Sinabung in Karo Regency on 19 February 2018, at 01:53 UTC (08:53 local time). The eruption lasted for 291 seconds and released ash-cloud more than 5000 meter (best estimate at 7460 m) above sea level.
2) Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) was raised to Red from 19 Feb 2018, 0213Z. Some flights to/from Kualanamu Airport (KNO) have been cancelled/delayed.
3) Ash rain was reported in regencies of North Sumatra and Aceh provinces: Karo, North Aceh, Bireun, Aceh Tamiang, Aceh Tenggara (max. pop. at risk: 5.2 mil)
4) Indonesian National Disaster Management Authority (BNPB) & Karo Regency Disaster Management Agency (BPBD) reported zero fatalities and injuries.
5) BNPB has sent Rapid Assessment Team to assist BPBD Karo Regency for managing the situation. The latest eruption did not affect settlement of the relocated IDPs from previous eruption. Masks have been provided to affected people.
6) In Karo Regency, emergency response is led by the Regent, BPBD Karo, Indonesian Army, Education agency, and Indonesian Red Cross (PVMBG).
7) Urgent needs: mask and car with water tank to remove volcanic ash from roads and houses (BNPB).
8) PVMBG & BNPB warned population at risk and tourist to avoid areas of 3 km radius from tip of Mt. Sinabung, along the Laborus River and in the following directions from Mt. Sinabung: 7 km to south-southeast, 6 km to southeast-east, 4 km to east-north.

= Update on 31 January 2018 =
National Disaster Management Authority (BNPB) spokeperson reported eruption of Mount Sinabung on 31 January 2018, 09.17 UTC+7. The image from the ground shows pyroclastic materials have covered the whole areas of Bekerah, Simacem and Sukameriah villages.

= Update on 27 January 2018 =
National Disaster Management Authority (BNPB) spokeperson reported two eruptions of Mount Sinabung in North Sumatra. The eruption occurred on 11.47 UTC+7 releasing 2000 meters of volcanic ash (wind direction east and southeast), with 407 second tremors. There was no report on the change of IDPs status.

= Update on 1-4 January 2018 =
Until 4 January 2018, National Disaster Management Authority (BNPB) spokeperson reported 10 eruptions of Mount Sinabung. The latest one has released volcanic ash column up to 3000 meters with 368 seconds of felt tremor.
BNPB reported no changes in terms of IDPs number in permanet relocation zone.

= Update on 27 December 2017 =
Mount Sinabung in Karo regency of North Sumatra province erupted again with amplitude of 120 millimeters and duration of 500 seconds on Wednesday (27/12/2017) at 15.36 WIB. Observation Post of Mount Sinabung PVMBG reported that the eruption was accompanied by a falling geyser with a 3.500 meter sliding distance to Southeast - East and 4,600 meters to South - Southeast. The wind is blowing east-southeast.

From the top of the crater comes out smoke with black gray volcanic ash with medium to strong pressure. The volcanic ash falls fell in some of the villages around Mount Sinabung. Volcanic activity of Mount Sinabung is still high. Caution Status (level 4) applied since 2/6/2015 to the present.

Thousands of people are directly affected by the volcanic ash caused by the eruption of Mount Sinabung. No casualties. There is no public panic to see the eruption because almost every day Mount Sinabung erupted. The ash rains spread in such places as in Sukanalu Village, Tonggal Town, Central Kuta, Gamber, Berastepu, Jeraya, Iron Gate, and several other villages in the eastern sector.

PVMBG recommends the community and visitors not to engage in activities within a 3 km radius of the peak, and within 7 km for the South - Southeast sector, within 6 km for the Southeast - East sector, and within 4 km for the North - East sector G. Sinabung.

Residents who live and move near the rivers that headed in G. Sinabung to stay alert to the threat of danger lava. Considering the natural dam has been formed upstream of the Laborus River, the residents who live and move around downstream of the Laborus river basin to keep the vigilance because this dam can be broken at any time, if not strong enough to withstand the volume of water resulting in lava / flood downstream . BPBD Tanah Karo District to immediately disseminate the threat of lava / banjir bandang disasters to residents who live and move along the downstream and around Laborus River.

Karo Government and Government are still continuing to complete the relocation of residents of Mount Sinabung. The incessant eruption of Mount Sinabung has caused disaster-prone areas to expand and some villages should not be occupied again. Communities should be relocated to a safe place. A total of 3,331 Family Heads (KK) should be relocated.

370 families from Bekerah Village, Simacem Village and Sukameriah Village have been relocated in Siosar area. A total of 1,863 households in the relocation process independently and is expected beginning of 2018 is completed. While 1,098 KK will be relocated in Siosar area, targeted for completion in 2018. Meanwhile, for refugees who do not have to be relocated, the government has made 348 temporary shelters. There are no refugees in the tents.

People are urged to continue to be vigilant and obey the government's recommendations. It is unpredictable until when Mt. Sinabung will stop erupting. Volcanic parameters and mountain seismicity remain high so that the potential for subsequent eruptions will continue.

UPDATE on 12 October 2017

On Thursday, 12 October 2017 at 02.45 local time, National Disaster Management Authority (BNPB) reported another eruption of Mount Sinabung in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The eruption lasted for 366 seconds. It was observed that the eruption released a 2,000 meter volcanic ash column topped with ash plumes as well as 1,500 meters of glide to the south and 2,000 meters to the East - Southeast direction. A 333 seconds of eruption was also observed a day before (11 October 2017) with the height of volcanic ash column reached out to 1,500 meters and resulted in ash-rain.

The BNPB released that there was no additional casualties and number of evacuees. From 2013 until 2017, BNPB has provided assistance amounting to IDR 321.6 billion (approximately USD 23.67 million) for the victims, and President Joko Widodo

INITIAL REPORT from 12 February 2014
Mt. Sinabung errupted again and emits pyroclastic clouds causing several casualties

The affected area includes all villages in the radius of 3 km from the volcano

The casualties includes:
16 death
1 injured
31,739 people evacuated
Based on research and development agency of Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture the impact of this incident to agriculture:
50,921 ha amounted to 1.3 - 1.5 trillion IDR or 114 - 130 millions USD

Search and Rescue team will continue to look for more victims
Additional Data
Country: Indonesia
Affected Area / Region: North Sumatra


Affected Families: 3953
Affected Persons: 19765
Displaced Persons: 19765


Damaged houses: t.b.a.Damaged educational facilities (e.g. schools): t.b.a.Damaged medical facilities (e.g. hospital): t.b.a.Damaged infrastructure (e.g. road, water network): t.b.a.Loss of livelihood sources: t.b.a.Access to early warning: YesCost of Damage (USD): t.b.a.Cost of Assistance (USD): USD 23.67 million (2013-2017)

Credibility: UP DOWN 0

Additional Reports

Indonesia, Twister struck Pakpak Barat

17:31 Mar 18, 2013

Pakpak Barat, 27.31 Kms

Indonesia, Flood in Asahan North Sumatera

07:58 Oct 28, 2014

Asahan, 29.28 Kms

Indonesia, Flooding in Central Aceh

16:00 Jan 16, 2019

Central Aceh, 32.73 Kms

Indonesia, Flashflood hits Asahan, North Sumatra Province

13:15 Feb 21, 2013

Simpang Empat, Teluk Dalam, Tinggi Raja, Buntu Pane, 33.3 Kms

Indonesia, Mt. Sinabung erupted

18:00 Dec 30, 2013

North Sumatar, 37.41 Kms